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June 2020

Chinstrap Penguins: Risking Their Lives on Zavodovski Island

Chinstrap Penguin

Chinstrap Penguins: Risking Their Lives on Zavodovski Island

By Sian Liversage

We often think of penguin colonies as a magical place, full of cute fluffy chicks and amazing doting parents. However, these situations are far from the truth when you add some of the most dangerous seas and an active volcano spewing ash into the mix. 

Zavodovski Island – One of the largest Chinstrap Penguin colonies in the world

Chinstrap Penguins stand 75cm tall and are well known for their narrow band of black feathers that pass from ear to ear across the face and under the chin. One of the largest Chinstrap Penguin colonies in the world is on Zavodovski Island, situated in the South Sandwich Islands in Antarctica. With 7.5 million Chinstrap Penguins worldwide, the colony represents over one-seventh of the species’ global population. As well as this vast population, approximately 180,000 Macaroni Penguins are resident here too.

The Chinstraps arrive to breed during the October and November months to lay 2 small eggs on the ground in a nest that is lined with small stones. Eggs are incubated by both the males and females, where they will often incubate in stints of up to 6 days at a time. During this time, one penguin will be feeding on Antarctic krill and various other crustaceans of which the chicks rely on for growth and development, while the other penguin will keep the eggs warm and protected.

Chinstrap Penguin
A Chinstrap Penguin in Antarctica. Source: Penguins International Photo Library

In order to get the food though, the penguins must face treacherous waters and 30-foot cliffs that surround the island, risking severe injury or even worse – death. (see link below)

https://time.com/4660247/planet-earth-ii-clip-penguins/

These Chinstraps have to face catastrophic natural disasters to survive

Their strong feet and long claws allow them to grip to the rocks as best they can with some varying success, however, with the pounding waves it is inevitable that they won’t always succeed. To make things even more astounding, this isn’t the only hardship they go through. Not only do they have to endure the perilous seas every 6 days for weeks on end to feed their chicks, but they also face natural disasters too.

The volcanic eruption on Mount Curry severely threatened this penguin colony

Zavodovski Island is home to an active volcano, called Mount Curry. In 2016, it threatened more than 1 million Chinstrap Penguins, so much so that the population was in risk of being wiped out. The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) stated that the volcano had erupted and covered the island in toxic smoke and ash. The penguins were in grave danger of the smoke causing breathing difficulties, and the volcanic discharge could have potentially burned them or buried them in ash. The timing was terrible for the poor birds, as it was during their annual moult which meant that they couldn’t swim to find safety. During moulting, the penguins lose their insulation and waterproofing as they shed their old feathers for new ones, therefore they are forced to stay on land and out of the water. 

Mt Curry
Mount Curry on Zavodovski Island erupted on March 2016.  Photo Credit: British Antarctic Survey

The penguins survived, but scientists have little ability to observe how they react to such an eruption

This is believed to have been the first time Zavodovski Island has been witnessed erupting, and it is thought that this event occurred following a 7.2 magnitude earthquake only a month before. Although this threat occurred a few years ago, to this day the volcano remains active and could easily erupt again leaving the penguins at its peril. With the island being so remote – over a thousand miles away from the nearest continental coastline – surveys cannot be undertaken regularly as the trip requires acute planning for the safety of the scientists involved. Therefore, the population could easily be wiped out without anyone even realising.

The impact that mother nature throws at this penguin colony is astonishing and often scientists are unsure what impact they will have on the health and survival of the population in the long run. Only by sending scientific expeditions to the region can they have a better understanding of how Chinstrap Penguins manage to survive these ongoing threats.

Did you ever imagine that penguins not only have to survive the harsh temperatures of Antarctica, but some penguins even have to live and survive around massive volcanic eruptions. Have you ever seen a volcanic eruption in person? Let us know what you think? And please help us to continue to provide you with penguin news articles by donating to Penguins International.

Read more about penguins in some of our other blogs:

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References

Ellenbroek, B. 2013 [updated 2017]. Chinstrap penguin. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Onlinewww.nzbirdsonline.org.nz

Knapton, S. 2016. Penguins on world’s smelliest island in danger as volcano erupts, covering them in ash. Webpage: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2016/07/06/penguins-on-worlds-smelliest-island-in-danger-as-volcano-erupts/

Sidder, A. 2016. Erupting volcano may have destroyed huge penguin colony. Webpage: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/07/chinstrap-penguin-colony-volcano-threat-south-atlantic-ocean/

 

How Do Penguins Feed Their Chicks?

How Do Penguins Feed Their Chicks?

By Sian Liversage

It’s easy to say that you can learn a lot from watching a penguin colony, from their hunting behaviours to how they raise their chicks. Many of us have watched documentaries of penguins incubating and hatching their chicks, but one thing that has always baffled me and many others, is how do they store food to feed their chicks? It turns out, the answer isn’t as simple as you may think – there are multiple ways in which they care for their young as I explain below.

Penguins first must hunt for their food

All penguins hunt in the same way; they either catch their prey in the water or they can scrape krill off the underside of the ice. They do not have teeth, but instead have a very sharp bill to do this. Their mouths and tongues are lined with spines that point back towards their throat, making it easy for them to swallow prey such as squid, shrimp and fish.

Swallowing their food to store it for later 

If a penguin has chicks, it will catch and swallow its food, then “store” it for later to feed to its chicks. Of course, some will also be kept for themselves to enable the parent to continue to survive and hunt for prey. Chicks cannot digest food like their parents, therefore, the parents need to convert it into a form that the chicks can eat. There are a few ways of doing this; the first way is regurgitation; the second way is the equivalent to “refrigerating” the food; and finally, the third way is a secretion that is made from the digested food.

Regurgitation

This is when a penguin will catch its food and partially digest it, which will take a few hours. When the parent reaches its chick, and the food has been digested enough, it will cough the mixture back up and allowing the chick to eat it directly from the parent’s bill. This feeding method is often seen on documentaries so keep a lookout!

A Gentoo Penguin feeding its chick in Antarctica. Source: Penguins International Photo Library
A Gentoo Penguin chick getting a huge meal. Source: Penguins International Video Library

“Refrigeration”

This is a genius evolutionary method that enables penguins to keep food for several days. The parent will swallow the prey whole and store it inside their stomach. This food is kept at body temperature, and inside the stomach there are enzymes which prevent it from digesting.

Penguin “Milk”

When it comes to feeding their chicks, males and females will take turns. In some penguins, Emperor Penguins in particular, the male will care for the chick for several weeks while the female is out hunting and gorging on prey. During this time, the male produces a secretion to sustain the chick and ensure its survival. Penguins, being birds, don’t have “milk” like mammals do.  Instead, they produce this secretion which is sometimes called crop milk. This is a fatty, high protein food that is developed in their crop (a pouch in their throat) and given to chicks during key developmental stages. Although it is nothing like mammal milk, the benefits of this crop milk are very similar to the benefit young mammals get from milk. 

Inside of a penguin. Web: https://sciencing.com/penguins-feed-their-chicks-4567587.html

Conclusion

Chicks need constant feeding throughout their development in order to stay happy and healthy, and it can easily be said that without their parents’ remarkable evolutionary techniques and physiology, the chicks would no doubt perish. 

Penguins have such a different way of feeding that so many other species. Let us know what you think.  And please help us to continue to provide you with penguin news articles by donating to Penguins International.

Read more about penguins in some of our other blogs:

References

E, Lee. 2019. How do penguins feed their chicks? Webpage: https://sciencing.com/penguins-feed-their-chicks-4567587.html

Penguin Science. Diet and Feeding answers. Webpage: https://www.penguinscience.com/education/ask_answers_1.php

Ocean Syrup. 2019. Do penguins make milk? Webpage: https://oceansyrup.com/do-penguins-make-milk/

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